European and US firms are striving to win the race to commercial production. New material selection and change of manufacturing procedures show an indication of the reshuffle of the battery supply chain. From both technology and business point of view, the development of solid-state batteries has become part of the next-generation battery strategy.
In a solid state battery both the electrodes and the electrolytes are solid-state. Solid state electrolyte normally behaves as the separator as well, allowing downscaling due to the elimination of certain components such as the separator and casing. This allows cells to be made thinner, flexible, and contain more energy per unit weight/volume than conventional Li-ion cells with polymer or liquid electrolyte. The removal of liquid electrolytes makes the solid state battery more resistant to changes in temperature and physical damages that occurred during usage and potentiall allows them to handle more charge/discharge cycles before degradation, promising a longer lifetime.
IDTechEx has identified solid state battery technologies including solid polymer electrolyte, as well as other 8 inorganic electrolyte types such as LISICON-like, argyrodites, garnet, NASICON-like, Perovskite, LiPON, Li-Hydride and Li-Halide. Among them, the material systems based on oxide and sulfide systems stand out, together with the polymer systems, becoming the popular options in the next-generation development. Sulfide electrolytes have advantages of high ionic conductivity, even better than liquid electrolytes, low processing temperature, wide electrochemical stability window, etc.
However, the difficulty of manufacturing and the toxic by-product that can be generated in the process make the commercialization relatively slow. IDTechEx has observed that more companies tend to focus more on the oxide system to reach a shorter time of return. This has also been reflected in the market prediction.
The IDTechEx report is at Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2020-2030: Technology, Patents, Forecasts, Players
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